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水泡动画模拟(Marching Cubes)

来源:互联网 作者:佚名 时间:2017-09-09 17:41
Marching Cubes算法是三维离散数据场中提取等值面的经典算法,其主要应用于医学领域的可视化场景,例如CT扫描和MRI扫描的3D重建等。 算法主要的思想是在三维离散数据场中通过线性插值来逼近等值面,具体如下:三维离散数据场中每个栅格单元作为一个体素,体

  Marching Cubes算法是三维离散数据场中提取等值面的经典算法,其主要应用于医学领域的可视化场景,例如CT扫描和MRI扫描的3D重建等。

  算法主要的思想是在三维离散数据场中通过线性插值来逼近等值面,具体如下:三维离散数据场中每个栅格单元作为一个体素,体素的每个顶点都存在对应的标量值。如果体素顶点上的值大于或等于等值面值,则定义该顶点位于等值面之外,标记为“0”;而如果体素顶点上的值小于等值面值,则定义该顶点位于等值面之内,标记为“1”。由于每个体素单元有8个顶点,那么共存在2^8 = 256种情形,下图是Marching Cubes算法的15种基本情形,其他241种情形可以通过这15种基本情形的旋转、映射等方式实现。

  每个体素单元上顶点和边的索引规则如下图左所示,假如体素下方的顶点3的值小于等值面值,其他顶点上的值都大于等值面值(如下图右所示),那么我们可以生成一个与体素边2,3,11相交的三角面片,而三角面片顶点的具体位置则需要根据等值面值和边顶点3-2,3-0,3-7的值线性插值计算得到。

  对于与等值面存在交点的体素边,交点坐标用P表示,P1、P2代表边上两个端点的坐标,V1、V2代表这两个端点上的值,V代表等值面值,那么交点坐标的计算公式如下:

P = P1 + (V – V1)·(P2 – P1)/(V2 – V1)

  算法第一步:通过edgeTable表判断等值面和体素单元哪一条边相交

  体素单元顶点状态的索引号定义规则如下:

cubeindex = 0;
if (V[0] < isolevel) cubeindex |= 1;
if (V[1] < isolevel) cubeindex |= 2;
if (V[2] < isolevel) cubeindex |= 4;
if (V[3] < isolevel) cubeindex |= 8;
if (V[4] < isolevel) cubeindex |= 16;
if (V[5] < isolevel) cubeindex |= 32;
if (V[6] < isolevel) cubeindex |= 64;
if (V[7] < isolevel) cubeindex |= 128;

  以上图所示为例,仅顶点3标记为“1”,其他顶点标记为“0”,那么体素单元的顶点状态为0000 1000或者8,通过查找表得到edgeTable[8] = 1000 0000 1100,意味着体素单元的边2,3,11和等值面相交,然后通过线性插值计算各个交点的位置。

  算法第二步:通过triTable表生成对应三角面片的组成情况

  还是以上图所示为例,通过查找表得到triTable[8] = {3, 11, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},意味着该种顶点状态可以生成三角面片(3, 11, 2),代表三角面片的3个顶点为边3,11,2和等值面相交的交点。

  经过上述步骤之后,我们可以得到等值面的点面信息。为了进一步完善显示效果,需要调整顶点法向。假设顶点(i, j, k)上的值为f(i, j, k),采用中心差分方法可以计算该点处的梯度矢量:

 

  对G进行归一化,得到顶点(i, j, k)上的单位法向量,然后对体素单元上8个顶点的法向量进行线性插值就可得到三角面片各个顶点的显示法向量。

edgeTable查找表

int edgeTable[256]={
0x0  , 0x109, 0x203, 0x30a, 0x406, 0x50f, 0x605, 0x70c,
0x80c, 0x905, 0xa0f, 0xb06, 0xc0a, 0xd03, 0xe09, 0xf00,
0x190, 0x99 , 0x393, 0x29a, 0x596, 0x49f, 0x795, 0x69c,
0x99c, 0x895, 0xb9f, 0xa96, 0xd9a, 0xc93, 0xf99, 0xe90,
0x230, 0x339, 0x33 , 0x13a, 0x636, 0x73f, 0x435, 0x53c,
0xa3c, 0xb35, 0x83f, 0x936, 0xe3a, 0xf33, 0xc39, 0xd30,
0x3a0, 0x2a9, 0x1a3, 0xaa , 0x7a6, 0x6af, 0x5a5, 0x4ac,
0xbac, 0xaa5, 0x9af, 0x8a6, 0xfaa, 0xea3, 0xda9, 0xca0,
0x460, 0x569, 0x663, 0x76a, 0x66 , 0x16f, 0x265, 0x36c,
0xc6c, 0xd65, 0xe6f, 0xf66, 0x86a, 0x963, 0xa69, 0xb60,
0x5f0, 0x4f9, 0x7f3, 0x6fa, 0x1f6, 0xff , 0x3f5, 0x2fc,
0xdfc, 0xcf5, 0xfff, 0xef6, 0x9fa, 0x8f3, 0xbf9, 0xaf0,
0x650, 0x759, 0x453, 0x55a, 0x256, 0x35f, 0x55 , 0x15c,
0xe5c, 0xf55, 0xc5f, 0xd56, 0xa5a, 0xb53, 0x859, 0x950,
0x7c0, 0x6c9, 0x5c3, 0x4ca, 0x3c6, 0x2cf, 0x1c5, 0xcc ,
0xfcc, 0xec5, 0xdcf, 0xcc6, 0xbca, 0xac3, 0x9c9, 0x8c0,
0x8c0, 0x9c9, 0xac3, 0xbca, 0xcc6, 0xdcf, 0xec5, 0xfcc,
0xcc , 0x1c5, 0x2cf, 0x3c6, 0x4ca, 0x5c3, 0x6c9, 0x7c0,
0x950, 0x859, 0xb53, 0xa5a, 0xd56, 0xc5f, 0xf55, 0xe5c,
0x15c, 0x55 , 0x35f, 0x256, 0x55a, 0x453, 0x759, 0x650,
0xaf0, 0xbf9, 0x8f3, 0x9fa, 0xef6, 0xfff, 0xcf5, 0xdfc,
0x2fc, 0x3f5, 0xff , 0x1f6, 0x6fa, 0x7f3, 0x4f9, 0x5f0,
0xb60, 0xa69, 0x963, 0x86a, 0xf66, 0xe6f, 0xd65, 0xc6c,
0x36c, 0x265, 0x16f, 0x66 , 0x76a, 0x663, 0x569, 0x460,
0xca0, 0xda9, 0xea3, 0xfaa, 0x8a6, 0x9af, 0xaa5, 0xbac,
0x4ac, 0x5a5, 0x6af, 0x7a6, 0xaa , 0x1a3, 0x2a9, 0x3a0,
0xd30, 0xc39, 0xf33, 0xe3a, 0x936, 0x83f, 0xb35, 0xa3c,
0x53c, 0x435, 0x73f, 0x636, 0x13a, 0x33 , 0x339, 0x230,
0xe90, 0xf99, 0xc93, 0xd9a, 0xa96, 0xb9f, 0x895, 0x99c,
0x69c, 0x795, 0x49f, 0x596, 0x29a, 0x393, 0x99 , 0x190,
0xf00, 0xe09, 0xd03, 0xc0a, 0xb06, 0xa0f, 0x905, 0x80c,
0x70c, 0x605, 0x50f, 0x406, 0x30a, 0x203, 0x109, 0x0   };
View Code

triTable查找表

int triTable[256][16] =
{{-1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 8, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 1, 9, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 8, 3, 9, 8, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 2, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 8, 3, 1, 2, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 2, 10, 0, 2, 9, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 8, 3, 2, 10, 8, 10, 9, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 11, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 11, 2, 8, 11, 0, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 9, 0, 2, 3, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 11, 2, 1, 9, 11, 9, 8, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 10, 1, 11, 10, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 10, 1, 0, 8, 10, 8, 11, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 9, 0, 3, 11, 9, 11, 10, 9, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 8, 10, 10, 8, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 7, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 3, 0, 7, 3, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 1, 9, 8, 4, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 1, 9, 4, 7, 1, 7, 3, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 2, 10, 8, 4, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 4, 7, 3, 0, 4, 1, 2, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 2, 10, 9, 0, 2, 8, 4, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 10, 9, 2, 9, 7, 2, 7, 3, 7, 9, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{8, 4, 7, 3, 11, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{11, 4, 7, 11, 2, 4, 2, 0, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 0, 1, 8, 4, 7, 2, 3, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 7, 11, 9, 4, 11, 9, 11, 2, 9, 2, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 10, 1, 3, 11, 10, 7, 8, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 11, 10, 1, 4, 11, 1, 0, 4, 7, 11, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 7, 8, 9, 0, 11, 9, 11, 10, 11, 0, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 7, 11, 4, 11, 9, 9, 11, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 5, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 5, 4, 0, 8, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 5, 4, 1, 5, 0, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{8, 5, 4, 8, 3, 5, 3, 1, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 2, 10, 9, 5, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 0, 8, 1, 2, 10, 4, 9, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 2, 10, 5, 4, 2, 4, 0, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 10, 5, 3, 2, 5, 3, 5, 4, 3, 4, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 5, 4, 2, 3, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 11, 2, 0, 8, 11, 4, 9, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 5, 4, 0, 1, 5, 2, 3, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 1, 5, 2, 5, 8, 2, 8, 11, 4, 8, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 3, 11, 10, 1, 3, 9, 5, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 9, 5, 0, 8, 1, 8, 10, 1, 8, 11, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 4, 0, 5, 0, 11, 5, 11, 10, 11, 0, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 4, 8, 5, 8, 10, 10, 8, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 7, 8, 5, 7, 9, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 3, 0, 9, 5, 3, 5, 7, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 7, 8, 0, 1, 7, 1, 5, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 5, 3, 3, 5, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 7, 8, 9, 5, 7, 10, 1, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 1, 2, 9, 5, 0, 5, 3, 0, 5, 7, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{8, 0, 2, 8, 2, 5, 8, 5, 7, 10, 5, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 10, 5, 2, 5, 3, 3, 5, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{7, 9, 5, 7, 8, 9, 3, 11, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 5, 7, 9, 7, 2, 9, 2, 0, 2, 7, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 3, 11, 0, 1, 8, 1, 7, 8, 1, 5, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{11, 2, 1, 11, 1, 7, 7, 1, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 5, 8, 8, 5, 7, 10, 1, 3, 10, 3, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 7, 0, 5, 0, 9, 7, 11, 0, 1, 0, 10, 11, 10, 0, -1},
{11, 10, 0, 11, 0, 3, 10, 5, 0, 8, 0, 7, 5, 7, 0, -1},
{11, 10, 5, 7, 11, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 6, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 8, 3, 5, 10, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 0, 1, 5, 10, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 8, 3, 1, 9, 8, 5, 10, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 6, 5, 2, 6, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 6, 5, 1, 2, 6, 3, 0, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 6, 5, 9, 0, 6, 0, 2, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 9, 8, 5, 8, 2, 5, 2, 6, 3, 2, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 3, 11, 10, 6, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{11, 0, 8, 11, 2, 0, 10, 6, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 1, 9, 2, 3, 11, 5, 10, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 10, 6, 1, 9, 2, 9, 11, 2, 9, 8, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{6, 3, 11, 6, 5, 3, 5, 1, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 8, 11, 0, 11, 5, 0, 5, 1, 5, 11, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 11, 6, 0, 3, 6, 0, 6, 5, 0, 5, 9, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{6, 5, 9, 6, 9, 11, 11, 9, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 10, 6, 4, 7, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 3, 0, 4, 7, 3, 6, 5, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 9, 0, 5, 10, 6, 8, 4, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 6, 5, 1, 9, 7, 1, 7, 3, 7, 9, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{6, 1, 2, 6, 5, 1, 4, 7, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 2, 5, 5, 2, 6, 3, 0, 4, 3, 4, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{8, 4, 7, 9, 0, 5, 0, 6, 5, 0, 2, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{7, 3, 9, 7, 9, 4, 3, 2, 9, 5, 9, 6, 2, 6, 9, -1},
{3, 11, 2, 7, 8, 4, 10, 6, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 10, 6, 4, 7, 2, 4, 2, 0, 2, 7, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 1, 9, 4, 7, 8, 2, 3, 11, 5, 10, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 2, 1, 9, 11, 2, 9, 4, 11, 7, 11, 4, 5, 10, 6, -1},
{8, 4, 7, 3, 11, 5, 3, 5, 1, 5, 11, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 1, 11, 5, 11, 6, 1, 0, 11, 7, 11, 4, 0, 4, 11, -1},
{0, 5, 9, 0, 6, 5, 0, 3, 6, 11, 6, 3, 8, 4, 7, -1},
{6, 5, 9, 6, 9, 11, 4, 7, 9, 7, 11, 9, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 4, 9, 6, 4, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 10, 6, 4, 9, 10, 0, 8, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 0, 1, 10, 6, 0, 6, 4, 0, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{8, 3, 1, 8, 1, 6, 8, 6, 4, 6, 1, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 4, 9, 1, 2, 4, 2, 6, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 0, 8, 1, 2, 9, 2, 4, 9, 2, 6, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 2, 4, 4, 2, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{8, 3, 2, 8, 2, 4, 4, 2, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 4, 9, 10, 6, 4, 11, 2, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 8, 2, 2, 8, 11, 4, 9, 10, 4, 10, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 11, 2, 0, 1, 6, 0, 6, 4, 6, 1, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{6, 4, 1, 6, 1, 10, 4, 8, 1, 2, 1, 11, 8, 11, 1, -1},
{9, 6, 4, 9, 3, 6, 9, 1, 3, 11, 6, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{8, 11, 1, 8, 1, 0, 11, 6, 1, 9, 1, 4, 6, 4, 1, -1},
{3, 11, 6, 3, 6, 0, 0, 6, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{6, 4, 8, 11, 6, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{7, 10, 6, 7, 8, 10, 8, 9, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 7, 3, 0, 10, 7, 0, 9, 10, 6, 7, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 6, 7, 1, 10, 7, 1, 7, 8, 1, 8, 0, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 6, 7, 10, 7, 1, 1, 7, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 2, 6, 1, 6, 8, 1, 8, 9, 8, 6, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 6, 9, 2, 9, 1, 6, 7, 9, 0, 9, 3, 7, 3, 9, -1},
{7, 8, 0, 7, 0, 6, 6, 0, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{7, 3, 2, 6, 7, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 3, 11, 10, 6, 8, 10, 8, 9, 8, 6, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 0, 7, 2, 7, 11, 0, 9, 7, 6, 7, 10, 9, 10, 7, -1},
{1, 8, 0, 1, 7, 8, 1, 10, 7, 6, 7, 10, 2, 3, 11, -1},
{11, 2, 1, 11, 1, 7, 10, 6, 1, 6, 7, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{8, 9, 6, 8, 6, 7, 9, 1, 6, 11, 6, 3, 1, 3, 6, -1},
{0, 9, 1, 11, 6, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{7, 8, 0, 7, 0, 6, 3, 11, 0, 11, 6, 0, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{7, 11, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{7, 6, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 0, 8, 11, 7, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 1, 9, 11, 7, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{8, 1, 9, 8, 3, 1, 11, 7, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 1, 2, 6, 11, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 2, 10, 3, 0, 8, 6, 11, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 9, 0, 2, 10, 9, 6, 11, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{6, 11, 7, 2, 10, 3, 10, 8, 3, 10, 9, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{7, 2, 3, 6, 2, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{7, 0, 8, 7, 6, 0, 6, 2, 0, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 7, 6, 2, 3, 7, 0, 1, 9, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 6, 2, 1, 8, 6, 1, 9, 8, 8, 7, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 7, 6, 10, 1, 7, 1, 3, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 7, 6, 1, 7, 10, 1, 8, 7, 1, 0, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 3, 7, 0, 7, 10, 0, 10, 9, 6, 10, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{7, 6, 10, 7, 10, 8, 8, 10, 9, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{6, 8, 4, 11, 8, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 6, 11, 3, 0, 6, 0, 4, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{8, 6, 11, 8, 4, 6, 9, 0, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 4, 6, 9, 6, 3, 9, 3, 1, 11, 3, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{6, 8, 4, 6, 11, 8, 2, 10, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 2, 10, 3, 0, 11, 0, 6, 11, 0, 4, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 11, 8, 4, 6, 11, 0, 2, 9, 2, 10, 9, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 9, 3, 10, 3, 2, 9, 4, 3, 11, 3, 6, 4, 6, 3, -1},
{8, 2, 3, 8, 4, 2, 4, 6, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 4, 2, 4, 6, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 9, 0, 2, 3, 4, 2, 4, 6, 4, 3, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 9, 4, 1, 4, 2, 2, 4, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{8, 1, 3, 8, 6, 1, 8, 4, 6, 6, 10, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 1, 0, 10, 0, 6, 6, 0, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 6, 3, 4, 3, 8, 6, 10, 3, 0, 3, 9, 10, 9, 3, -1},
{10, 9, 4, 6, 10, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 9, 5, 7, 6, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 8, 3, 4, 9, 5, 11, 7, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 0, 1, 5, 4, 0, 7, 6, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{11, 7, 6, 8, 3, 4, 3, 5, 4, 3, 1, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 5, 4, 10, 1, 2, 7, 6, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{6, 11, 7, 1, 2, 10, 0, 8, 3, 4, 9, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{7, 6, 11, 5, 4, 10, 4, 2, 10, 4, 0, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 4, 8, 3, 5, 4, 3, 2, 5, 10, 5, 2, 11, 7, 6, -1},
{7, 2, 3, 7, 6, 2, 5, 4, 9, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 5, 4, 0, 8, 6, 0, 6, 2, 6, 8, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 6, 2, 3, 7, 6, 1, 5, 0, 5, 4, 0, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{6, 2, 8, 6, 8, 7, 2, 1, 8, 4, 8, 5, 1, 5, 8, -1},
{9, 5, 4, 10, 1, 6, 1, 7, 6, 1, 3, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 6, 10, 1, 7, 6, 1, 0, 7, 8, 7, 0, 9, 5, 4, -1},
{4, 0, 10, 4, 10, 5, 0, 3, 10, 6, 10, 7, 3, 7, 10, -1},
{7, 6, 10, 7, 10, 8, 5, 4, 10, 4, 8, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{6, 9, 5, 6, 11, 9, 11, 8, 9, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 6, 11, 0, 6, 3, 0, 5, 6, 0, 9, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 11, 8, 0, 5, 11, 0, 1, 5, 5, 6, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{6, 11, 3, 6, 3, 5, 5, 3, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 2, 10, 9, 5, 11, 9, 11, 8, 11, 5, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 11, 3, 0, 6, 11, 0, 9, 6, 5, 6, 9, 1, 2, 10, -1},
{11, 8, 5, 11, 5, 6, 8, 0, 5, 10, 5, 2, 0, 2, 5, -1},
{6, 11, 3, 6, 3, 5, 2, 10, 3, 10, 5, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 8, 9, 5, 2, 8, 5, 6, 2, 3, 8, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 5, 6, 9, 6, 0, 0, 6, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 5, 8, 1, 8, 0, 5, 6, 8, 3, 8, 2, 6, 2, 8, -1},
{1, 5, 6, 2, 1, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 3, 6, 1, 6, 10, 3, 8, 6, 5, 6, 9, 8, 9, 6, -1},
{10, 1, 0, 10, 0, 6, 9, 5, 0, 5, 6, 0, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 3, 8, 5, 6, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 5, 6, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{11, 5, 10, 7, 5, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{11, 5, 10, 11, 7, 5, 8, 3, 0, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 11, 7, 5, 10, 11, 1, 9, 0, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 7, 5, 10, 11, 7, 9, 8, 1, 8, 3, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{11, 1, 2, 11, 7, 1, 7, 5, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 8, 3, 1, 2, 7, 1, 7, 5, 7, 2, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 7, 5, 9, 2, 7, 9, 0, 2, 2, 11, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{7, 5, 2, 7, 2, 11, 5, 9, 2, 3, 2, 8, 9, 8, 2, -1},
{2, 5, 10, 2, 3, 5, 3, 7, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{8, 2, 0, 8, 5, 2, 8, 7, 5, 10, 2, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 0, 1, 5, 10, 3, 5, 3, 7, 3, 10, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 8, 2, 9, 2, 1, 8, 7, 2, 10, 2, 5, 7, 5, 2, -1},
{1, 3, 5, 3, 7, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 8, 7, 0, 7, 1, 1, 7, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 0, 3, 9, 3, 5, 5, 3, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 8, 7, 5, 9, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 8, 4, 5, 10, 8, 10, 11, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 0, 4, 5, 11, 0, 5, 10, 11, 11, 3, 0, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 1, 9, 8, 4, 10, 8, 10, 11, 10, 4, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{10, 11, 4, 10, 4, 5, 11, 3, 4, 9, 4, 1, 3, 1, 4, -1},
{2, 5, 1, 2, 8, 5, 2, 11, 8, 4, 5, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 4, 11, 0, 11, 3, 4, 5, 11, 2, 11, 1, 5, 1, 11, -1},
{0, 2, 5, 0, 5, 9, 2, 11, 5, 4, 5, 8, 11, 8, 5, -1},
{9, 4, 5, 2, 11, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 5, 10, 3, 5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3, 8, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{5, 10, 2, 5, 2, 4, 4, 2, 0, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 10, 2, 3, 5, 10, 3, 8, 5, 4, 5, 8, 0, 1, 9, -1},
{5, 10, 2, 5, 2, 4, 1, 9, 2, 9, 4, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{8, 4, 5, 8, 5, 3, 3, 5, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 4, 5, 1, 0, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{8, 4, 5, 8, 5, 3, 9, 0, 5, 0, 3, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 4, 5, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 11, 7, 4, 9, 11, 9, 10, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 8, 3, 4, 9, 7, 9, 11, 7, 9, 10, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 10, 11, 1, 11, 4, 1, 4, 0, 7, 4, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 1, 4, 3, 4, 8, 1, 10, 4, 7, 4, 11, 10, 11, 4, -1},
{4, 11, 7, 9, 11, 4, 9, 2, 11, 9, 1, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 7, 4, 9, 11, 7, 9, 1, 11, 2, 11, 1, 0, 8, 3, -1},
{11, 7, 4, 11, 4, 2, 2, 4, 0, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{11, 7, 4, 11, 4, 2, 8, 3, 4, 3, 2, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 9, 10, 2, 7, 9, 2, 3, 7, 7, 4, 9, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 10, 7, 9, 7, 4, 10, 2, 7, 8, 7, 0, 2, 0, 7, -1},
{3, 7, 10, 3, 10, 2, 7, 4, 10, 1, 10, 0, 4, 0, 10, -1},
{1, 10, 2, 8, 7, 4, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 9, 1, 4, 1, 7, 7, 1, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 9, 1, 4, 1, 7, 0, 8, 1, 8, 7, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 0, 3, 7, 4, 3, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{4, 8, 7, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 10, 8, 10, 11, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 0, 9, 3, 9, 11, 11, 9, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 1, 10, 0, 10, 8, 8, 10, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 1, 10, 11, 3, 10, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 2, 11, 1, 11, 9, 9, 11, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 0, 9, 3, 9, 11, 1, 2, 9, 2, 11, 9, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 2, 11, 8, 0, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{3, 2, 11, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 3, 8, 2, 8, 10, 10, 8, 9, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{9, 10, 2, 0, 9, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{2, 3, 8, 2, 8, 10, 0, 1, 8, 1, 10, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 10, 2, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{1, 3, 8, 9, 1, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 9, 1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{0, 3, 8, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1},
{-1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1}};
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参考文献:

[1] William E. Lorensen and Harvey E. Cline. 1987. Marching cubes: A high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm. SIGGRAPH Comput. Graph. 21, 4 (August 1987), 163-169.

[2] http://graphics.stanford.edu/~mdfisher/MarchingCubes.html

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