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详解在ASP.NET Core中使用Angular2以及与Angular2的Tok

来源:互联网 作者:佚名 时间:2022-05-27 12:31
Angular2是对Angular1的一次彻底的,破坏性的更新。 相对于Angular1.x,借用某果的广告语,唯一的不同,就是处处都不同。 首先,推荐的语言已经不再是Javascript,取而代之的TypeScript,(Ty

Angular2是对Angular1的一次彻底的,破坏性的更新。

相对于Angular1.x,借用某果的广告语,唯一的不同,就是处处都不同。

•首先,推荐的语言已经不再是Javascript,取而代之的TypeScript,(TypeScript = ES6 + 类型系统 + 类型注解), TypeScriipt的类型系统对于开发复杂的单页Web app大有帮助,同时编译成javascript后的执行效率也比大多数手写javascript要快。有兴趣的同学可以查阅官方文档:英文传送门 |中文传送门。

•得益于彻底重构,性能相对于Angular1.x有了大幅提升,也更适合再全平台部署。

•Angular2是基于Component的,Component可以理解为是1.x时代的Controller + $Scope + view

•View的很多语法也做了更新,比如<li ng-repeat="movie in vm.movies"></li> 变成了 <li *ngFor="let movie of movies"></li>

关于Angular2,强烈建议查阅官方文档:英文传送门| 中文传送门

注意:本文章属于Step by step + Code Sample教程,且篇幅较长,建议下载本Sample并跟着本文进度自己重做一遍本例,下载完整代码并分析代码结构才有意义,下载地址:How to authorization Angular 2 app with asp.net core web api

1.前期准备

•推荐使用VS2015 Update3或更新的版本完成本示例,下载地址:https://www.jb51.net/softjc/446184.html

•你需要安装.NET Core开发环境,这里提供VS版: https://www.jb51.net/softs/472362.html

•安装Node.js 版本5.0.0或以上,(在本例中,这个主要是编译TypeScript用的)下载地址:Node.js and NPM

•NPM 3.0.0或以上,默认NPM会随着Node.js一并安装完毕。(在本例中,这个主要是下载各种Angular的各个包用的,参考VS中的Nuget)

2.创建项目

在VS中新建项目,项目类型选择 ASP.NET Core Web Application(.Net Core),输入项目名称为:CSAuthorAngular2InASPNetCore,Template选择为Empty.

3.在项目中整合Angular2

3.1.配置Startup.cs

注:添加下面的代码时IDE会报代码错误,这是因为还没有引用对用的包,进入报错的这一行,点击灯泡,加载对应的包就可以了。

(图文无关)

在ConfigureServices中添加如下代码

services.AddMvc();

这里是添加MVC服务

在Configure中添加如下代码

app.UseStaticFiles();

app.UseMvc(routes =>
{
  routes.MapRoute(
    name: "default",
    template: "{controller=Home}/{action=Index}");
});

第一句是启用静态文件,第二句是应用MVC模式并添加路由配置。

完整的代码应该是这个样子

public class Startup
{
  // This method gets called by the runtime. Use this method to add services to the container.
  // For more information on how to configure your application, visit http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=398940
  public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
  {
    services.AddMvc();
  }

  // This method gets called by the runtime. Use this method to configure the HTTP request pipeline.
  public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory)
  {
    app.UseStaticFiles();

    app.UseMvc(routes =>
    {
      routes.MapRoute(
        name: "default",
        template: "{controller=Home}/{action=Index}");
    });
  }
}

3.2.添加控制器以及视图

3.2.1.在项目根目录下添加Controllers目录,并在其中添加一个控制器HomeController.cs,默认代码即可。

3.2.2.在项目跟目录下创建Views目录,在Views目录中新建目录Home, 最后在Home目录中新建视图Index.cshtml,内容应该是这样:

<html>
<head>
  <title>Angular QuickStart</title>
  <base href="/">
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
  <!-- 1. Load libraries -->
  <!-- Polyfill(s) for older browsers -->
  <script src="node_modules/core-js/client/shim.min.js"></script>
  <script src="node_modules/zone.js/dist/zone.js"></script>
  <script src="node_modules/reflect-metadata/Reflect.js"></script>
  <script src="node_modules/systemjs/dist/system.src.js"></script>
  <!-- 2. Configure SystemJS -->
  <script src="systemjs.config.js"></script>
  <script>
   System.import('app').catch(function(err){ console.error(err); });
  </script>
</head>
<!-- 3. Display the application -->
<body>
  <my-app>Loading...</my-app>
</body>
</html>

现在运行项目的话你仅仅能看到一个Loading,再控制台中你还能看到错误,这是因为我们还没有配置Angular。让我们前往wwwroot目录。

3.3.在项目的wwwroot目录中添加如下结构:

3.3.1搭建Angular2基础环境

•package.json

{
 "name": "angular-quickstart",
 "version": "1.0.0",
 "scripts": {
  "start": "tsc && concurrently \"tsc -w\" \"lite-server\" ",
  "lite": "lite-server",
  "postinstall": "typings install",
  "tsc": "tsc",
  "tsc:w": "tsc -w",
  "typings": "typings"
 },
 "licenses": [
  {
   "type": "MIT",
   "url": "https://github.com/angular/angular.io/blob/master/LICENSE"
  }
 ],
 "dependencies": {
  "@angular/common": "2.0.2",
  "@angular/compiler": "2.0.2",
  "@angular/core": "2.0.2",
  "@angular/forms": "2.0.2",
  "@angular/http": "2.0.2",
  "@angular/platform-browser": "2.0.2",
  "@angular/platform-browser-dynamic": "2.0.2",
  "@angular/router": "3.0.2",
  "@angular/upgrade": "2.0.2",
  "angular-in-memory-web-api": "0.1.5",
  "bootstrap": "3.3.7",
  "core-js": "2.4.1",
  "reflect-metadata": "0.1.8",
  "rxjs": "5.0.0-beta.12",
  "systemjs": "0.19.39",
  "zone.js": "0.6.25"
 },
 "devDependencies": {
  "concurrently": "3.0.0",
  "gulp": "^3.9.1",
  "lite-server": "2.2.2",
  "typescript": "2.0.3",
  "typings": "1.4.0"
 }
}

•systemjs.config.js

(function (global) {
  System.config({
    paths: {
      // paths serve as alias
      'npm:': 'node_modules/'
    },
    // map tells the System loader where to look for things
    map: {
      // our app is within the app folder
      app: 'app',
      // angular bundles
      '@angular/core': 'npm:@angular/core/bundles/core.umd.js',
      '@angular/common': 'npm:@angular/common/bundles/common.umd.js',
      '@angular/compiler': 'npm:@angular/compiler/bundles/compiler.umd.js',
      '@angular/platform-browser': 'npm:@angular/platform-browser/bundles/platform-browser.umd.js',
      '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic': 'npm:@angular/platform-browser-dynamic/bundles/platform-browser-dynamic.umd.js',
      '@angular/http': 'npm:@angular/http/bundles/http.umd.js',
      '@angular/router': 'npm:@angular/router/bundles/router.umd.js',
      '@angular/forms': 'npm:@angular/forms/bundles/forms.umd.js',
      '@angular/upgrade': 'npm:@angular/upgrade/bundles/upgrade.umd.js',
      // other libraries
      'rxjs': 'npm:rxjs',
      'angular-in-memory-web-api': 'npm:angular-in-memory-web-api/bundles/in-memory-web-api.umd.js'
    },
    // packages tells the System loader how to load when no filename and/or no extension
    packages: {
      app: {
        main: './main.js',
        defaultExtension: 'js'
      },
      rxjs: {
        defaultExtension: 'js'
      }
    }
  });
})(this);

•tsconfig.js

{
 "compileOnSave": true,
 "compilerOptions": {
  "target": "es5",
  "module": "commonjs",
  "moduleResolution": "node",
  "sourceMap": true,
  "emitDecoratorMetadata": true,
  "experimentalDecorators": true,
  "removeComments": false,
  "noImplicitAny": false
 },
 "exclude": [
  "node_modules"
 ]
}

•typings.json(注,在最新文档中typings已被npm的@types替代,参见官方文档:文档变更日志)

{
 "globalDependencies": {
  "core-js": "registry:dt/core-js#0.0.0+20160725163759",
  "jasmine": "registry:dt/jasmine#2.2.0+20160621224255",
  "node": "registry:dt/node#6.0.0+20160909174046"
 }
}

右击wwwroot中的Package.json,选择Restore Packages(或者在CMD下进入wwwroot目录,并执行命令 npm install),npm会去下载需要的包,并存储于node_modules目录中。

3.3.2.配置启动文件以启用Angular2

在wwwroot下新建目录app,app拥有如下文件:

•app.component.ts

import { Component } from '@angular/core';

@Component({
  moduleId: module.id,
  selector: 'my-app',
  template: "this is in angular2",
})
export class AppComponent {
}

可以发现被@Component装饰属性装饰了AppComponent,selector指代你Component的占位符,比如本例中你可以再Home/index.cshtml中发现一段这样的标记

<my-app>Loading...</my-app>

template既为该Component的View,不要忘记moduleId,不添加它会出现很多奇怪的问题。

•app.module.ts

import { NgModule } from "@angular/core";
import { BrowserModule } from "@angular/platform-browser";

import { AppComponent } from "./app.component";

@NgModule({
  bootstrap: [AppComponent],
  imports: [
    BrowserModule
  ],
  declarations: [
    AppComponent
  ]
})
export class AppModule { }

•main.ts

import { platformBrowserDynamic } from '@angular/platform-browser-dynamic';
import { AppModule } from './app.module';
const platform = platformBrowserDynamic();
platform.bootstrapModule(AppModule);

基础整合完毕。

按F5 Debug一下,现在你能再浏览器中看到一句话:this is in angular 2

4.实现身份认证

废了半天劲,看着很傻,没有任何成就感。怎么办,让我们再深入一点,接下来我们来为Angular2完成一个Token base的身份验证,我会把Angular2的routing,data bind,service,http,等等你工作中最常用到的挨个演示一遍。

4.1.Server端

4.1.1.创建一些辅助类

4.1.1.1.在项目根目录下创建一个文件夹Auth,并添加RSAKeyHelper.cs以及TokenAuthOption.cs两个文件

•在RSAKeyHelper.cs中

using System.Security.Cryptography;

namespace CSTokenBaseAuth.Auth
{
  public class RSAKeyHelper
  {
    public static RSAParameters GenerateKey()
    {
      using (var key = new RSACryptoServiceProvider(2048))
      {
        return key.ExportParameters(true);
      }
    }
  }
}

•在TokenAuthOption.cs中

using System;
using Microsoft.IdentityModel.Tokens;

namespace CSTokenBaseAuth.Auth
{
  public class TokenAuthOption
  {
    public static string Audience { get; } = "ExampleAudience";
    public static string Issuer { get; } = "ExampleIssuer";
    public static RsaSecurityKey Key { get; } = new RsaSecurityKey(RSAKeyHelper.GenerateKey());
    public static SigningCredentials SigningCredentials { get; } = new SigningCredentials(Key, SecurityAlgorithms.RsaSha256Signature);

    public static TimeSpan ExpiresSpan { get; } = TimeSpan.FromMinutes(20);
  }
}

4.1.1.2.在项目根目录下创建目录Model,并在其中添加RequestResult.cs,代码应该是这样。

public class RequestResult
{
  public RequestState State { get; set; }
  public string Msg { get; set; }
  public Object Data { get; set; }
}

public enum RequestState
{
  Failed = -1,
  NotAuth = 0,
  Success = 1
}

4.1.2更新Startup.cs

在ConfigureServices中添加如下代码:

services.AddAuthorization(auth =>
{
  auth.AddPolicy("Bearer", new AuthorizationPolicyBuilder()
    .AddAuthenticationSchemes(JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme‌​)
    .RequireAuthenticatedUser().Build());
});

这里是添加身份认证服务

在Configure方法中添加如下代码:

app.UseExceptionHandler(appBuilder =>
{
  appBuilder.Use(async (context, next) =>
  {
    var error = context.Features[typeof(IExceptionHandlerFeature)] as IExceptionHandlerFeature;

    //when authorization has failed, should retrun a json message to client
    if (error != null && error.Error is SecurityTokenExpiredException)
    {
      context.Response.StatusCode = 401;
      context.Response.ContentType = "application/json";

      await context.Response.WriteAsync(JsonConvert.SerializeObject(new RequestResult
      {
        State = RequestState.NotAuth,
        Msg = "token expired"
      }));
    }
    //when orther error, retrun a error message json to client
    else if (error != null && error.Error != null)
    {
      context.Response.StatusCode = 500;
      context.Response.ContentType = "application/json";
      await context.Response.WriteAsync(JsonConvert.SerializeObject(new RequestResult
      {
        State = RequestState.Failed,
        Msg = error.Error.Message
      }));
    }
    //when no error, do next.
    else await next();
  });
});

本段是Handle当身份认证失败时抛出的异常,并返回合适的json

在相同的方法中添加另外一段代码:

app.UseJwtBearerAuthentication(new JwtBearerOptions()
{
  TokenValidationParameters = new TokenValidationParameters()
  {
    IssuerSigningKey = TokenAuthOption.Key,
    ValidAudience = TokenAuthOption.Audience,
    ValidIssuer = TokenAuthOption.Issuer,
    // When receiving a token, check that we've signed it.
    ValidateIssuerSigningKey = true,
    // When receiving a token, check that it is still valid.
    ValidateLifetime = true,
    // This defines the maximum allowable clock skew - i.e. provides a tolerance on the token expiry time 
    // when validating the lifetime. As we're creating the tokens locally and validating them on the same 
     // machines which should have synchronised time, this can be set to zero. Where external tokens are
    // used, some leeway here could be useful.
    ClockSkew = TimeSpan.FromMinutes(0)
  }
});

本段代码是应用JWTBearerAuthentication身份认证。

4.1.3.TokenAuthController.cs

在Controllers中新建一个Web API Controller Class,命名为TokenAuthController.cs。我们将在这里完成登录授权,

在同文件下添加两个类,分别用来模拟用户模型,以及用户存储,代码应该是这样:

public class User
{
  public Guid ID { get; set; }
  public string Username { get; set; }
  public string Password { get; set; }
}

public static class UserStorage
{
  public static List<User> Users { get; set; } = new List<User> {
    new User {ID=Guid.NewGuid(),Username="user1",Password = "user1psd" },
    new User {ID=Guid.NewGuid(),Username="user2",Password = "user2psd" },
    new User {ID=Guid.NewGuid(),Username="user3",Password = "user3psd" }
  };
}

接下来在TokenAuthController.cs中添加如下方法

private string GenerateToken(User user, DateTime expires)
{
  var handler = new JwtSecurityTokenHandler();
  
  ClaimsIdentity identity = new ClaimsIdentity(
    new GenericIdentity(user.Username, "TokenAuth"),
    new[] {
      new Claim("ID", user.ID.ToString())
    }
  );

  var securityToken = handler.CreateToken(new SecurityTokenDescriptor
  {
    Issuer = TokenAuthOption.Issuer,
    Audience = TokenAuthOption.Audience,
    SigningCredentials = TokenAuthOption.SigningCredentials,
    Subject = identity,
    Expires = expires
  });
  return handler.WriteToken(securityToken);
}

该方法仅仅只是生成一个Auth Token,接下来我们来添加另外一个方法来调用它

在相同文件中添加如下代码

[HttpPost]
public string GetAuthToken(User user)
{
  var existUser = UserStorage.Users.FirstOrDefault(u => u.Username == user.Username && u.Password == user.Password);

  if (existUser != null)
  {
    var requestAt = DateTime.Now;
    var expiresIn = requestAt + TokenAuthOption.ExpiresSpan;
    var token = GenerateToken(existUser, expiresIn);

    return JsonConvert.SerializeObject(new {
      stateCode = 1,
      requertAt = requestAt,
      expiresIn = TokenAuthOption.ExpiresSpan.TotalSeconds,
      accessToken = token
    });
  }
  else
  {
    return JsonConvert.SerializeObject(new { stateCode = -1, errors = "Username or password is invalid" });
  }
}

接下来我们来完成授权部分,在相同的文件中添加如下代码:

public string GetUserInfo()
{
  var claimsIdentity = User.Identity as ClaimsIdentity;

  return JsonConvert.SerializeObject(new RequestResult
  {
    State = RequestState.Success,
    Data = new
    {
      UserName = claimsIdentity.Name
    }
  });
}

为方法添加装饰属性

[HttpGet]

[Authorize("Bearer")]

第二行代码说明这个action需要身份验证。

该文件完整的代码应该是这个样子:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc;
using CSAuthorAngular2InASPNetCore.Auth;
using System.IdentityModel.Tokens.Jwt;
using Newtonsoft.Json;
using System.Security.Claims;
using System.Security.Principal;
using Microsoft.IdentityModel.Tokens;
using CSAuthorAngular2InASPNetCore.Model;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authorization;


namespace CSAuthorAngular2InASPNetCore.Controllers
{
  [Route("api/[controller]")]
  public class TokenAuthController : Controller
  {
    [HttpPost]
    public string GetAuthToken([FromBody]User user)
    {
      var existUser = UserStorage.Users.FirstOrDefault(u => u.Username == user.Username && u.Password == user.Password);

      if (existUser != null)
      {
        var requestAt = DateTime.Now;
        var expiresIn = requestAt + TokenAuthOption.ExpiresSpan;
        var token = GenerateToken(existUser, expiresIn);

        return JsonConvert.SerializeObject(new RequestResult
        {
          State = RequestState.Success,
          Data = new
          {
            requertAt = requestAt,
            expiresIn = TokenAuthOption.ExpiresSpan.TotalSeconds,
            tokeyType = TokenAuthOption.TokenType,
            accessToken = token
          }
        });
      }
      else
      {
        return JsonConvert.SerializeObject(new RequestResult
        {
          State = RequestState.Failed,
          Msg = "Username or password is invalid"
        });
      }
    }

    private string GenerateToken(User user, DateTime expires)
    {
      var handler = new JwtSecurityTokenHandler();

      ClaimsIdentity identity = new ClaimsIdentity(
        new GenericIdentity(user.Username, "TokenAuth"),
        new[] {
          new Claim("ID", user.ID.ToString())
        }
      );

      var securityToken = handler.CreateToken(new SecurityTokenDescriptor
      {
        Issuer = TokenAuthOption.Issuer,
        Audience = TokenAuthOption.Audience,
        SigningCredentials = TokenAuthOption.SigningCredentials,
        Subject = identity,
        Expires = expires
      });
      return handler.WriteToken(securityToken);
    }

    [HttpGet]
    [Authorize("Bearer")]
    public string GetUserInfo()
    {
      var claimsIdentity = User.Identity as ClaimsIdentity;

      return JsonConvert.SerializeObject(new RequestResult
      {
        State = RequestState.Success,
        Data = new
        {
          UserName = claimsIdentity.Name
        }
      });
    }
  }

  public class User
  {
    public Guid ID { get; set; }

    public string Username { get; set; }

    public string Password { get; set; }
  }

  public static class UserStorage
  {
    public static List<User> Users { get; set; } = new List<User> {
      new User {ID=Guid.NewGuid(),Username="user1",Password = "user1psd" },
      new User {ID=Guid.NewGuid(),Username="user2",Password = "user2psd" },
      new User {ID=Guid.NewGuid(),Username="user3",Password = "user3psd" }
    };
  }
}

4.2Angular2端

4.2.1创建View Model

在wwwroot/app下创建一个目录:_model, 并添加一个Typescript文件RequestResult.ts,内容应该是这样。

export class RequestResult {
  State: number;
  Msg: string;
  Data: Object;
}

4.2.2创建Service

在wwwroot/app下创建一个目录:_services,并添加一个Typescript文件auth.service.ts,内容应该是这样。

import { Injectable } from "@angular/core";
import { Headers, Http } from "@angular/http";
import "rxjs/add/operator/toPromise";

import { RequestResult } from "../_model/RequestResult";

@Injectable()
export class AuthService {
  private tokeyKey = "token";
  private token: string;

  constructor(
    private http: Http
  ) { }

  login(userName: string, password: string): Promise<RequestResult> {
    return this.http.post("/api/TokenAuth", { Username: userName, Password: password }).toPromise()
      .then(response => {
        let result = response.json() as RequestResult;
        if (result.State == 1) {
          let json = result.Data as any;

          sessionStorage.setItem("token", json.accessToken);
        }
        return result;
      })
      .catch(this.handleError);
  }

  checkLogin(): boolean {
    var token = sessionStorage.getItem(this.tokeyKey);
    return token != null;
  }

  getUserInfo(): Promise<RequestResult> {
    return this.authGet("/api/TokenAuth");
  }

  authPost(url: string, body: any): Promise<RequestResult> {
    let headers = this.initAuthHeaders();
    return this.http.post(url, body, { headers: headers }).toPromise()
      .then(response => response.json() as RequestResult)
      .catch(this.handleError);
  }

  authGet(url): Promise<RequestResult> {
    let headers = this.initAuthHeaders();
    return this.http.get(url, { headers: headers }).toPromise()
      .then(response => response.json() as RequestResult)
      .catch(this.handleError);
  }

  private getLocalToken(): string {
    if (!this.token) {
      this.token = sessionStorage.getItem(this.tokeyKey);
    }
    return this.token;
  }

  private initAuthHeaders(): Headers {
    let token = this.getLocalToken();
    if (token == null) throw "No token";

    var headers = new Headers();
    headers.append("Authorization", "Bearer " + token);

    return headers;
  }

  private handleError(error: any): Promise<any> {
    console.error('An error occurred', error);
    return Promise.reject(error.message || error);
  }
}

本文件主要用来完成登录以及登录验证工作,之后该service将可以被注入到Component中以便被Component调用。

注:主要的逻辑都应该写到service中

4.2.3.创建Component

4.2.3.1.在wwwroot/app下创建一个目录home,该目录用来存放HomeComponent,home应拥有如下文件:

•home.component.ts

import { Component, OnInit } from "@angular/core";

import { AuthService } from "../_services/auth.service";

@Component({
  moduleId: module.id,
  selector: "my-home",
  templateUrl: "view.html",
  styleUrls: ["style.css"]
})
export class HomeComponent implements OnInit {
  isLogin = false;
  userName: string;
  
  constructor(
    private authService: AuthService
  ) { }

  ngOnInit(): void {
    this.isLogin = this.authService.checkLogin();
    if (this.isLogin) {
      this.authService.getUserInfo().then(res => {
        this.userName = (res.Data as any).UserName;
      });
    }

  }
}

查阅代码,在@Component中指定了View以及style。

AuthService被在构造方法中被注入了本Component,ngOnInit是接口OnInit的一个方法,他在Component初始化时会被调用。

•style.css

/*styles of this view*/

本例中没有添加任何样式,如有需要可以写在这里。

•view.html

<div *ngIf="isLogin">
  <h1>Hi <span>{{userName}}</span></h1>
</div>

<div *ngIf="!isLogin">
  <h1>please login</h1>
  <a routerLink="/login">Login</a>
</div>

*ngIf=""是Angular2 的其中一种标记语法,作用是当返回真时渲染该节点,完整教程请参阅官方文档。

4.2.3.2.在wwwroot/app下创建目录Login,该目录用来存放LoginComponent,文件结构类似于上一节。

•login.component.ts

import { Component } from "@angular/core";
import { Router } from '@angular/router';

import { AuthService } from "../_services/auth.service";

@Component({
  moduleId: module.id,
  selector: "my-login",
  templateUrl: "view.html",
  styleUrls: ["style.css"]
})
export class LoginComponent {

  private userName: string;
  private password: string;

  constructor(
    private authService: AuthService,
    private router: Router
  ) { }

  login() {
    this.authService.login(this.userName, this.password)
      .then(result => {
        if (result.State == 1) {
          this.router.navigate(["./home"]);
        }
        else {
          alert(result.Msg);
        }
      });
  }
}

•style.css

/*styles of this view*/

•view.html

<table>
  <tr>
    <td>userName:</td>
    <td><input [(ngModel)]="userName" placeholder="useName:try type user1" /></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>userName:</td>
    <td><input [(ngModel)]="password" placeholder="password:try type user1psd" /></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td></td>
    <td><input type="button" (click)="login()" value="Login" /></td>
  </tr>
</table>

4.2.4.应用路由

路由是切换多页面用的。

在wwwroot/app下新建一个Typescript文件,命名为app-routing.module.ts,内容应该是这个样子。

import { NgModule } from "@angular/core";
import { RouterModule, Routes } from "@angular/router";

import { HomeComponent } from "./home/home.component";
import { LoginComponent } from "./login/login.component"

const routes: Routes = [
  { path: "", redirectTo: "/home", pathMatch: "full" },
  { path: "home", component: HomeComponent },
  { path: "login", component: LoginComponent }
];

@NgModule({
  imports: [RouterModule.forRoot(routes)],
  exports: [RouterModule]
})
export class AppRoutingModule { }

接下来我们来应用这个路由,

打开app.module.ts,更新代码如下:

import { NgModule } from "@angular/core";
import { BrowserModule } from "@angular/platform-browser";
import { HttpModule } from "@angular/http";
import { FormsModule } from "@angular/forms";

import { AppRoutingModule } from "./app-routing.module";

import { AuthService } from "./_services/auth.service";

import { AppComponent } from "./app.component";
import { HomeComponent } from "./home/home.component";
import { LoginComponent } from "./login/login.component";

@NgModule({
  bootstrap: [AppComponent],
  imports: [
    BrowserModule,
    HttpModule,
    AppRoutingModule,
    FormsModule
  ],
  declarations: [
    AppComponent,
    HomeComponent,
    LoginComponent
  ],
  providers: [AuthService]
})
export class AppModule { }

NgModule和BrowserModule你可以理解为基础模块,必加的。

HttpModule是做http请求用的。

FormsModule是做双向数据绑定用的,比如下面这样的,如果想把数据从view更新到component,就必须加这个。

<input [(ngModel)]="userName" placeholder="useName:try type user1" />

AppRoutingModule即为我们刚才添加的路由文件。

AuthService是我们最早添加的service文件。

AppComponent是我们最初添加的那个app.component.ts里的那个component.

HomeComponent,LoginComponent同上。

最后我们再app.component.ts中添加路由锚点,

把template的值为 "<router-outlet></router-outlet>"

完整的代码应该是这样:

import { Component } from '@angular/core';

@Component({
  moduleId: module.id,
  selector: 'my-app',
  template: "<router-outlet></router-outlet>",
})
export class AppComponent {
}

router-outlet是路由锚点的关键词。

至此,所有代码完成,F5调试吧。

以上就是本文的全部内容,希望对大家的学习有所帮助,也希望大家多多支持鸿网互联。

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