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详解ASP.NET Core和ASP.NET Framework共享身份验证

来源:互联网 作者:佚名 时间:2022-05-27 12:30
.NET Core 已经热了好一阵子,1.1版本发布后其可用性也越来越高,开源、组件化、跨平台、性能优秀、社区活跃等等标签再加上“微软爸爸”主推和大力支持,尽管现阶段对比.net framew

.NET Core 已经热了好一阵子,1.1版本发布后其可用性也越来越高,开源、组件化、跨平台、性能优秀、社区活跃等等标签再加上“微软爸爸”主推和大力支持,尽管现阶段对比.net framework还是比较“稚嫩”,但可以想象到它光明的前景。作为.net 开发者你是否已经开始尝试将项目迁移到.net core上?这其中要解决的一个较大的问题就是如何让你的.net core和老.net framework站点实现身份验证兼容!

1、第一篇章

我们先来看看.net core中对identity的实现,在Startup.cs的Configure中配置Cookie认证的相关属性

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env)
{
  app.UseCookieAuthentication(new CookieAuthenticationOptions
  {
    AuthenticationScheme = "test",
    CookieName = "MyCookie"
  });
}

Controller

public IActionResult Index()
{
  return View();
}

public IActionResult Login()
{
  return View();
}

[HttpPost]
public async Task<IActionResult> Login(string name)
{
  var identity = new ClaimsIdentity(
          new List<Claim>
          {
          new Claim(ClaimTypes.Name,name, ClaimValueTypes.String)
          },
          ClaimTypes.Authentication,
          ClaimTypes.Name,
          ClaimTypes.Role);
  var principal = new ClaimsPrincipal(identity);
  var properties = new AuthenticationProperties { IsPersistent = true };

  await HttpContext.Authentication.SignInAsync("test", principal, properties);

  return RedirectToAction("Index");
}

login 视图

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
  <title>登录</title>
</head>
<body>
  <form asp-controller="Account" asp-action="Login" method="post">
    <input type="text" name="name" /><input type="submit" value="提交" />
  </form>
</body>
</html>

index 视图

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
 <title>欢迎您-@User.Identity.Name</title>
</head>
<body>
  @if (User.Identity.IsAuthenticated)
  {
    <p>登录成功!</p>
  }
</body>
</html>

下面是实现效果的截图:

ok,到此我们用.net core比较简单地实现了用户身份验证信息的保存和读取。

接着思考,如果我的.net framework项目想读取.net core项目保存的身份验证信息应该怎么做?

要让两个项目都接受同一个Identity至少需要三个条件:

  • CookieName必须相同。
  • Cookie的作用域名必须相同。
  • 两个项目的Cookie认证必须使用同一个Ticket。

首先我们对.net core的Cookie认证添加domain属性和ticket属性

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env)
{
  var protectionProvider = DataProtectionProvider.Create(new DirectoryInfo(@"C:\keyPath\"));
  var dataProtector = protectionProvider.CreateProtector("MyCookieAuthentication");
  var ticketFormat = new TicketDataFormat(dataProtector);

  app.UseCookieAuthentication(new CookieAuthenticationOptions
  {
    AuthenticationScheme = "test",
    CookieName = "MyCookie",
    CookieDomain = "localhost",
    TicketDataFormat = ticketFormat
  });
}

此时我们在.net core 项目中执行用户登录,程序会在我们指定的目录下生成key.xml

我们打开文件看看程序帮我们记录了那些信息

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<key id="eb8b1b59-dbc5-4a28-97ad-2117a2e8f106" version="1">
 <creationDate>2016-12-04T08:27:27.8435415Z</creationDate>
 <activationDate>2016-12-04T08:27:27.8214603Z</activationDate>
 <expirationDate>2017-03-04T08:27:27.8214603Z</expirationDate>
 <descriptor deserializerType="Microsoft.AspNetCore.DataProtection.AuthenticatedEncryption.ConfigurationModel.AuthenticatedEncryptorDescriptorDeserializer, Microsoft.AspNetCore.DataProtection, Version=1.1.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=adb9793829ddae60">
  <descriptor>
   <encryption algorithm="AES_256_CBC" />
   <validation algorithm="HMACSHA256" />
   <masterKey p4:requiresEncryption="true" xmlns:p4="http://schemas.asp.net/2015/03/dataProtection">
    <value>yHdMEYlEBzcwpx0bRZVIbcGJ45/GqRwFjMfq8PJ+k7ZWsNMic0EMBgP33FOq9MFKX0XE/a1plhDizbb92ErQYw==</value>
   </masterKey>
  </descriptor>
 </descriptor>
</key>

ok,接下来我们开始配置.net framework项目,同样,在Startup.cs中配置Cookie认证的相关属性。

public partial class Startup
{
  public void Configuration(IAppBuilder app)
  {
    var protectionProvider = DataProtectionProvider.Create(new DirectoryInfo(@"C:\keyPath\"));
    var dataProtector = protectionProvider.CreateProtector("MyCookieAuthentication");
    var ticketFormat = new AspNetTicketDataFormat(new DataProtectorShim(dataProtector));
      
    app.UseCookieAuthentication(new CookieAuthenticationOptions
    {
      AuthenticationType = "test",
      CookieName = "MyCookie",
      CookieDomain = "localhost",
      TicketDataFormat = ticketFormat
    });
  }
}

view

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
  <title>.net framewor欢迎您-@User.Identity.Name</title>
</head>
<body>
  @if (User.Identity.IsAuthenticated)
  {
    <p>.net framework登录成功!</p>
  }
</body>
</html>

写法和.net core 基本上是一致的,我们来看下能否成功获取用户名:

反之在.net framework中登录在.net core中获取身份验证信息的方法是一样的,这里就不重复写了。

然而,到此为止事情就圆满解决了吗?很遗憾,麻烦才刚刚开始!

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2、第二篇章

如果你的子项目不多,也不复杂的情况下,新增一个.net core 站点,然后适当修改以前的.net framework站点,上述实例确实能够满足需求。可是如果你的子站点足够多,或者项目太过复杂,牵扯到的业务过于庞大或重要,这种情况下我们通常是不愿意动老项目的。或者说我们没有办法将所有的项目都进行更改,然后和新增的.net core站点同时上线,如果这么做了,那么更新周期会拉的很长不说,测试和更新之后的维护阶段压力都会很大。所以我们必须要寻找到一种方案,让.net core的身份验证机制完全迎合.net framwork。

因为.net framework 的cookie是对称加密,而.net core是非对称加密,所以要在.net core中动手的话必须要对.net core 默认的加密和解密操作进行拦截,如果可行的话最好的方案应该是将.net framework的FormsAuthentication类移植到.net core中。但是用reflector看了下,牵扯到的代码太多,剪不断理还乱,github上也没找到其源码,瞎忙活了一阵之后终于感慨:臣妾做不到(>﹏< )。

Cookie认证的相关属性

app.UseCookieAuthentication(new CookieAuthenticationOptions
{
  AuthenticationScheme = "test",
  CookieName = "MyCookie",
  CookieDomain = "localhost",
  TicketDataFormat = new FormsAuthTicketDataFormat("")
});

FormsAuthTicketDataFormat

public class FormsAuthTicketDataFormat : ISecureDataFormat<AuthenticationTicket>
{
  private string _authenticationScheme;

  public FormsAuthTicketDataFormat(string authenticationScheme)
  {
    _authenticationScheme = authenticationScheme;
  }

  public AuthenticationTicket Unprotect(string protectedText, string purpose)
  {
    var formsAuthTicket = GetFormsAuthTicket(protectedText);
    var name = formsAuthTicket.Name;
    DateTime issueDate = formsAuthTicket.IssueDate;
    DateTime expiration = formsAuthTicket.Expiration;

    var claimsIdentity = new ClaimsIdentity(new Claim[] { new Claim(ClaimTypes.Name, name) }, "Basic");
    var claimsPrincipal = new ClaimsPrincipal(claimsIdentity);

    var authProperties = new Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http.Authentication.AuthenticationProperties
    {
      IssuedUtc = issueDate,
      ExpiresUtc = expiration
    };
    var ticket = new AuthenticationTicket(claimsPrincipal, authProperties, _authenticationScheme);
    return ticket;
  }

  FormsAuthTicket GetFormsAuthTicket(string cookie)
  {
    return DecryptCookie(cookie).Result;
  }

  async Task<FormsAuthTicket> DecryptCookie(string cookie)
  {
    HttpClient _httpClient = new HttpClient();
    var response = await _httpClient.GetAsync("http://192.168.190.134/user/getMyTicket?cookie={cookie}");
    response.EnsureSuccessStatusCode();
    return await response.Content.ReadAsAsync<FormsAuthTicket>();
  }
}

FormsAuthTicket

public class FormsAuthTicket
{
  public DateTime Expiration { get; set; }
  public DateTime IssueDate { get; set; }
  public string Name { get; set; }
}

以上实现了对cookie的解密拦截,然后通过webapi从.net framework获取ticket

[Route("getMyTicket")]
public IHttpActionResult GetMyTicket(string cookie)
{
  var formsAuthTicket = FormsAuthentication.Decrypt(cookie);
  return Ok(new { formsAuthTicket.Name, formsAuthTicket.IssueDate, formsAuthTicket.Expiration });
}

有了webapi这条线,解密解决了,加密就更简单了,通过webapi获取加密后的cookie,.net core要做的只有一步,保存cookie就行了

[HttpPost]
public async Task<IActionResult> Login(string name)
{
  HttpClient _httpClient = new HttpClient();
  var response = await _httpClient.GetAsync($"http://192.168.190.134/user/getMyCookie?name={name}");
  response.EnsureSuccessStatusCode();

  string cookieValue = (await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync()).Trim('\"');
  CookieOptions options = new CookieOptions();
  options.Expires = DateTime.MaxValue;
  HttpContext.Response.Cookies.Append("MyCookie", cookieValue, options);

  return RedirectToAction("Index");
}

webapi获取cookie

[Route("getMyCookie")]
public string GetMyCookie(string name)
{
  FormsAuthentication.SetAuthCookie(name, false);
  return FormsAuthentication.GetAuthCookie(name, false).Value;
}

其余代码不用做任何更改,ok,我们来测试一下

ok,登录成功,至此完成.net framework和.net core身份验证的兼容,哎,如果.net core 的团队能多考虑一些这方面的兼容问题,哪怕是一个折中方案也能让开发者更有动力去做迁移。

以上就是本文的全部内容,希望对大家的学习有所帮助,也希望大家多多支持鸿网互联。

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